Near the corners of the maze are four larger, flashing dots known as Power Pellets that provide Pac-Man with the temporary ability to eat the ghosts and earn bonus points.
The enemies turn deep blue, reverse direction and usually move more slowly. When an enemy is eaten, its eyes remain and return to the center box where the ghost is regenerated in its normal color.
Blue enemies flash white to signal that they are about to become dangerous again and the length of time for which the enemies remain vulnerable varies from one stage to the next, generally becoming shorter as the game progresses.
In later stages, the enemies go straight to flashing, bypassing blue, which means that they can only be eaten for a short amount of time, although they still reverse direction when a Power Pellet is eaten; starting at stage nineteen, the ghosts do not become edible i.
There are also fruits, located directly below the center box, that appear twice per level; eating one of them results in bonus points —5, The enemies in Pac-Man are known variously as "monsters" or "ghosts".
In an interview, creator Toru Iwatani stated that he had designed each enemy with its own distinct personality in order to keep the game from becoming impossibly difficult or boring to play.
He stated that the red enemy chases Pac-Man, and the pink enemy aims for a position in front of Pac-Man's mouth. Although he claimed that the orange enemy's behavior is random, in actuality it alternates from behaving like the red enemy when at some distance from Pac-Man and aiming towards the lower-left corner of the maze whenever it gets too close to him.
Although Midway's flyer for Pac-Man used both the terms "monsters" and "ghost monsters",  the term "ghosts" started to become more popular after technical limitations in the Atari version caused the antagonists to flicker and seem ghostlike, leading them to be referred to in the manual as "ghosts", and they have most frequently been referred to as ghosts in English ever since.
Pac-Man was designed to have no ending — as long as at least one life was left, the game should be able to go on indefinitely. However, a bug keeps this from happening: Normally, no more than seven fruit are displayed on the HUD at the bottom of the screen at any given time.
Normally, when the fruit counter is below eight, the drawing subroutine draws one fruit for each level, decrementing the fruit counter until it reaches zero.
When the fruit counter has overflowed to zero, the first decrement sets the fruit counter back to , causing the subroutine to draw a total of fruit instead of the maximum of seven.
Since the game cannot draw any fruit beyond 20, once it has drawn 20 of the fruit, the remaining fruit are simply pieces of the data map itself.
Most of the tiles are free to move over, but some of them act like walls. This corrupts the bottom of the screen and the entire right half of the maze with seemingly random symbols and tiles, overwriting the values of edible dots which makes it impossible to eat enough dots to beat the level.
Because this effectively ends the game, this "split-screen" level is often referred to as the " kill screen ". If the player were to hit continue on the game twice, they could beat the screen by giving themselves another 15 lives, which is two more than the amount needed to beat the screen.
When the th level is beaten, the fruit and intermissions restart at level 1 conditions, but the enemies would retain their higher speed and invulnerability to power pellets from the higher stages.
This is easiest seen on Emulators and code analysis. A perfect Pac-Man game occurs when the player achieves the maximum possible score on the first levels by eating every possible dot, power pellet, fruit, and enemy without losing a single life, and using all extra lives to score as many points as possible on Level The first person to be credited with achieving this score was Billy Mitchell of Hollywood, Florida , who claimed to perform the feat in about six hours.
As of [update] , the world record, according to Twin Galaxies , is held by David Race, who in attained the maximum possible score of 3,, points in 3 hours, 28 minutes, and 49 seconds.
In December , an eight-year-old boy, Jeffrey R. Yee, received a letter from U. President Ronald Reagan congratulating him on a worldwide record of 6,, points, a score only possible if he had passed the unbeatable Split-Screen Level.
No video game player could demonstrate this ability. The prize expired unclaimed. Up into the early s, Namco primarily specialized in kiddie rides for Japanese department stores.
Masaya Nakamura , the founder of Namco, saw the potential value of video games, and started to direct the company toward arcade games, starting with electromechanical ones such as F-1 He later hired a number of software engineers to develop their own video games as to compete with companies like Atari, Inc.
Pac-Man was one of the first games developed by this new department within Namco. The game was developed primarily by a young employee named Toru Iwatani over the course of 1 year, beginning in April , employing a nine-man team.
His intention was to attract girls to arcades because he found there were very few games that were played by women at the time.
Eating to gain power, Iwatani has said, was a concept he borrowed from Popeye. When first launched in Japan by Namco in , Pac-Man received a lukewarm response as Space Invaders and other similar games were more popular at the time.
A frequently-repeated story claims that marketing executives saw Pac-Man at a trade show before its release and completely overlooked both it and the now-classic Defender , seeing a racing car game called Rally-X as the game to outdo that year.
It quickly became far more popular than anything seen in the video game industry up to that point. Pac-Man is given similar recognition.
An important trait of any game is the illusion of winnability The most successful game in this respect is Pac-Man, which appears winnable to most players, yet is never quite winnable.
The game is regarded as one of the most influential video games of all time,    for a number of reasons: Pac-Man has also influenced many other games, ranging from the sandbox game Grand Theft Auto where the player runs over pedestrians and gets chased by police in a similar manner  to early first-person shooters such as MIDI Maze which had similar maze-based gameplay and character designs.
The record was set and recognized in and mentioned in the Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition , but finally actually awarded in The game has inspired various real-life recreations, involving either real people or robots.
On August 21, , in the Summer Olympics closing ceremony , during a video which showcased Tokyo as the host of the Summer Olympics , a small segment shows Pac-Man and the ghosts racing against each other eating pac-dots on a running track.
The Pac-Man character and game series became an icon of video game culture during the s, and a wide variety of Pac-Man merchandise has been marketed with the character's image, from t-shirts and toys to hand-held video game imitations and even specially shaped pasta.
General Mills manufactured a cereal by the Pac-Man name in Over the cereal's lifespan, characters from sequels Super Pac-Man and Ms.
Pac-Man were also added. The show was released on Disney XD in June The song was played on the radio but was not released on a record at the time due to a cease and desist letter sent by the attorneys representing the Beatles.
The song was eventually released in as part of the album box set Squeeze Box: At one time, a feature film based on the game was in development.
In the movie Scott Pilgrim vs. He mentions the original name was Puck-Man, from the Japanese word paku-paku to open and close one's mouth , but was changed to avoid potential vandalism from its resemblance of a curse word.
Pac-man and his game appears in Wreck it Ralph. Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved May 26, Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: The protagonist Star-Lord is portrayed as a fan of the game, mentioning that he wants to create a Pac-Man statue in one scene, and later briefly takes the form of Pac-Man during the film's climactic battle.
In , Milton Bradley released a board game based on Pac-Man. Each Pac-Man is assigned to a player while the ghosts are neutral and controlled by all players.
Each player moves their Pac-Man the number of spaces on either die and a ghost the number of spaces on the other die, the Pac-Man consuming any white marbles the equivalent of dots and yellow marbles the equivalent of power pellets in its path.
Players can move a ghost onto a Pac-Man and claim two white marbles from its player. They can also move a Pac-Man with a yellow marble inside it onto a ghost and claim two white marbles from any other player following which the yellow marble is placed back in the maze.
The game ends when all white marbles have been cleared from the board; the player with the most white marbles wins.
The card packages contain a Pac-Man style maze with all points along the path covered with opaque coverings. Starting from the lower board Pac-Man starting position, the player moves around the maze while scratching off the coverings to score points.
A white dot scores one point, a blue monster scores ten points, and a cherry scores 50 points. Uncovering a red, orange or pink monster scores no points but the game ends when a third such monster is uncovered.
Pac-Man version of the game also includes pretzels points and bananas points. This follows essentially the same rules as the video version, though with a simplified maze.
A pinball version titled Mr. In South Pasadena, California a store called Kaldi has a non-commercially available Pac-Man 2 game machine in the store.
Pac-Man is one of the few games to have been consistently published for over three decades, having been remade on numerous platforms and spawned many sequels.
Re-releases include ported and updated versions of the original arcade game. Numerous unauthorized Pac-Man clones appeared soon after its release.
The combined sales of counterfeit arcade machines sold nearly as many units as the original Pac-Man , which had sold more than , machines.
One of the first ports to be released was the much-maligned port for the Atari , which only somewhat resembles the original and was widely criticized for its flickering ghosts, due to the 's limited memory and hardware compared to the arcade machine,    and several design and implementation choices.
While enjoying initial sales success, Atari had overestimated demand by producing 12 million cartridges, of which 5 million went unsold.
Coleco 's tabletop Mini-Arcade versions of the game yielded 1. Pac-Man has been featured in Namco's long-running Namco Museum video game compilations.
A port of Pac-Man for Android  can be controlled not only through an Android phone's trackball but through touch gestures or its on-board accelerometer.
A version of Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man was released on the Galaxy Games multi-game cocktail table unit in The game differed from the original in that players controlled Pac-Man's movement with a trackball instead of a normal arcade joystick.
Anniversary Edition in , and includes Pac-Man as one of its bundled arcade games. Namco has repeatedly re-released the game to arcades.
In , Namco released a Ms. To commemorate Pac-Man ' s 25th anniversary in , Namco released a revision that officially featured all three games.
Namco Networks sold a downloadable Windows PC version of Pac-Man in which also includes an "Enhanced" mode which replaces all of the original sprites with the sprites from Pac-Man Championship Edition.
Pac-Man and Dig Dug. Some of the follow-ups were not developed by Namco either —including the most significant, Ms. Pac-Man , released in the United States in The game features several changes from the original Pac-Man , including faster gameplay, more mazes, new intermissions, and moving bonus items.
Pac-Man to be superior to the original or even the best in the entire series. Pac-Man was conceived in response to the original Pac-Man being "the first commercial video game to involve large numbers of women as players" and that it is "our way of thanking all those lady arcaders who have played and enjoyed Pac-Man.
Eventually, Bally Midway struck a deal with Namco to officially license Ms. Pac-Man as a sequel. Namco today officially owns Ms.
Pac-Man in its other releases. Various platform games based on the series have also been released by Namco, such as 's Pac-Land and the Pac-Man World series, which features Pac-Man in a 3-D world.
More modern versions of the original game have also been developed, such as the multiplayer Pac-Man Vs. For the weekend of May 21—23, , Google changed the Google logo on its homepage to a Google Doodle of a fully playable version of the game  in recognition of the 30th anniversary of the game's release.
The game featured the ability to play both Pac-Man and Ms. However, The Official ASTD Blog noted that the total loss, "spread out across the entire world isn't a huge loss, comparatively speaking".
In , Namco sent a DMCA notice to the team that made the programming language Scratch saying that a programmer had infringed copyright by making a Pac-Man game using the language and uploading it to Scratch's official website.
It is a multiplayer browser-based game with user-created, interlocking mazes. In an in-app version of Pac-Man was introduced in Facebook Messenger.
This allows users to play the game against their friends while talking over Facebook. The 3DS version also has a stage based on the original arcade game, called Pac-Maze.
Pac-Man , Galaxian and Space Invaders. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the original Pac-Man arcade game from For the video game series, see List of Pac-Man video games.
For the video game character, see Pac-Man character. For other uses, see Pac-Man disambiguation. May 22,   NA: Level , unplayable under normal circumstances due to an 8-bit integer overflow in the game's code.
The initial configuration of Google's Pac-Man banner. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original on September 11, Archived PDF from the original on September 23, Retrieved July 20, Image, Play, and Structure in 3D Worlds.
Archived from the original on October 22, Archived from the original on December 7, Archived from the original on June 28, Archived from the original on December 25, Retrieved February 12, Archived from the original on January 22, Retrieved October 15, Columbia Records' Pac-Man Fever Archived from the original on October 16, Retrieved July 31, Part 10 — Pac Man".
The ultimate history of video games: Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved May 1, Despite the success of his game, Iwatani never received much attention.
The video game explosion: Retrieved April 10, It would go on to become arguably the most famous video game of all time, with the arcade game alone taking in more than a billion dollars.
A pizza dinner yields a cultural phenomenon — and millions of dollars in quarters. He also loved to eat a lot of pellets". Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved April 23, In the late s, Twin Galaxies, which tracks video game world record scores, visited used game auctions and counted how many times the average Pac Man machine had been played.
Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original on July 2, There are various Pac-man romsets out there right now, and at quick glance, it is difficult to tell which one was made first, which are hacks, and so on.
In this article, I hope to figure out the order in which they were released. Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved May 6, Video games — Golden Age".
Archived from the original on November 27, Archived from the original on November 30, Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on Retrieved November 3, Archived from the original on February 27, Proceedings of Level Up: Archived PDF from the original on May 14, To compensate, Luffy thus adapts to the situation and turns his disability into an advantage instead.
Throughout the series, Luffy is often faced with opponents that require unusual methods to defeat. For this reason, he sometimes adopts certain "forms" aside from his "Gear" forms intended to enable him to defeat those enemies.
However, some of these forms are simply cosmetic and do not involve his Devil Fruit powers in any way, such as Afro Luffy, giving him no actual physical advantages whatsoever.
In the fight with Crocodile , the leader of Baroque Works , Luffy used a barrel filled with water, in order to weaken Crocodile and make him vulnerable by disabling his ability to use his sand-morphing ability.
With this Luffy could coat his appendages with water and use water-supported attacks against Crocodile along with a plan to soak Crocodile completely with water.
Though at first glance the form looks idiotic and somewhat flawed as he had trouble keeping the water down to the point of causing even the enemy Nico Robin to burst out laughing , it allowed Luffy to safely store the water and spit it out at Crocodile for use.
Luffy stayed in this form until he was completely dried up by Crocodile. Beforehand, he got to choose what he would wear for the fight. Usopp , who was with him, spotted a big black afro, and had Luffy wear it.
Usopp claims that the afro gives Luffy extra power. While donning the afro, Luffy also donned boxing shorts, boxing gloves, some type of straps on his feet, and had a temporary tattoo of a flaming skull and cross-bones on his chest.
While wearing the afro, Luffy also tends to say things such as "Hell yeah! Although only Nami and possibly Zoro think that it does not help anything, the others say "Because of the afro Although this form only appears once in the original manga, Afro Luffy returns again in a filler episode.
When Foxy tries to get his ship and crew back, he is forced to ask for Luffy's help. When doing so, he hands over the afro he had before, and Luffy uses it to fight.
Before his fight against Gekko Moriah and Oars during the Thriller Bark Arc , the Rolling Pirates helped Luffy become temporarily stronger by infusing him with the power of one hundred shadows that were separated from their owners by Moriah's use of the Kage Kage no Mi.
In this form, Luffy was several times bigger than his normal self and his skin turned completely blue. Luffy also talked differently, losing his usual carefree tone and instead speaking with a grim seriousness.
By being further augmented by the shadows, all of his normal techniques are further increased, enough to topple even Oars.
While in this form, Luffy was capable of using the combined strength and skills of the shadows within him. With this strength, Luffy was even capable of stopping a giant Gomu Gomu no Rifle attack delivered by Oars with one hand and delivering massive attacks onto the zombie behemoth.
This form however only lasted for ten minutes. After that, all of the shadows within Luffy returned to their original owners.
Interestingly, Nightmare Luffy resembles Gear Fourth form. Unlimited Cruise , he was also shown to use archery, as well as being able to spit out fireballs by drinking Sake.
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